Almost all shellcode I see in malicious documents (PDF, Word, Powerpoint, …) found “in the wild” does the following:
- download a trojan from the Internet using HTTP
- write the downloaded executable to SYSTEM32
- execute the downloaded executable
This infection method only works if the user is local admin. If the exploited program has no rights to write to SYSTEM32, the shellcode will just fail and the trojan will not infect the machine.
To protect yourself and/or your users against this type of attack (I’m not talking about targeted attacks), restrict the user rights. Windows Vista and later versions do this for you with UAC, even if you’re an administrator.
On Windows XP, you have to use a normal user account in stead of an admin account to achieve this. But running non-admin on Windows XP is not always easy. If you really need to allow admin rights on Windows XP, you can still prevent high-risk applications (like Adobe Acrobat and Microsoft Office) from having full control over the system by restricting their rights. This is done by using a restricted token for the processes of these applications.
There are 2 popular tools to launch programs with a restricted token:
Both tools create a restricted token (by removing privileges and denying groups that provide local admin rights) and then launch the target program with this restricted token.
It’s not always easy to launch a program with DropMyRights, as there are many ways a program can be launched on Windows. For example with a file-type association or from a browser. To help you configure Windows to always restrict the rights of a specific program, StripMyRights also support the “Image File Execution Options” method with the /D option. The “Image File Execution Options” is designed to allow you to launch a program automatically inside a debugger. In the “Image File Execution Options” registry key, you specify the debugger to use. But this can really be any executable.
Example: to restrict the rights of Adobe Reader, add StripMyRights to the AcroRd32.exe Image Execution path like this:
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\acrord32.exe] "Debugger"="StripMyRights.exe /D /L N"
This way, each time AcroRd32.exe is executed, StripMyRights executes first, creates a restricted token and then launches AcroRd32.exe with this restricted token.
But executing StripMyRights before executing the target application doesn’t always yield satisfactory results, sometimes it breaks the application, because of the broken process tree.
That’s why I developed an alternative, LowerMyRights.dll, to be presented in an upcoming blogpost.