Didier Stevens

Monday 20 July 2020

Cracking VBA Project Passwords

Filed under: Encryption,maldoc — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

VBA projects can be protected with a password. The password is not used to encrypt the content of the VBA project, it is just used as protection by the VBA IDE: when the password is set, you will be prompted for the password.

Tools like oledump.py are not hindered by a VBA password, they can extract VBA code without problem, as it is not encrypted.

The VBA password is stored as the DPB value of the PROJECT stream:

You can remove password protection by replacing the values of ID, CMG, DPB and GC with the values of an unprotected VBA Project.

Thus a VBA password is no hindrance for staticanalysis.

However, we might still want to recover the password, just for the fun of it. How do we proceed?

The password itself is not stored inside the PROJECT stream. In stead, a hash is stored: the SHA1 hash of the password (MBCS representation) + 4 byte salt.

Then, this hash is encrypted (data encryption as described in MS-OVBA 2.4.3.2) and the hexadecimal representation of this encrypted hash is the value of DPB.

This data encryption is done according to an algorithm that does not use a secret key. I wrote an oledump.py plugin (plugin_vbaproject.py) to decrypt the hash and display it in a format suitable for John the Ripper and Hashcat:

The SHA1 of a password + salt is a dynamic format in John the Ripper: dynamic_24.

For Hashcat, it is mode 110 and you also need to use option –hex-salt.

Remark that the password passed as argument to the SHA1 function is represented in Multi Byte Character Set format. This means that ASCII characters are represented as bytes, but that non-ASCII characters might be represented with more than one byte, depending on the VBA project’s code page.

 

Thursday 30 April 2020

Update: zipdump.py Version 0.0.19

Filed under: Encryption,My Software,Update — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

This new version of zipdump uses module pyzipper in stead of build-in module zipfile.

pyzipper supports AES encryption. It is not a built-in module, and needs to be installed (with pip for example). pyzipper does not support Python 2.

If module pyzipper is not installed, zipdump will fall back to module zipfile.

zipdump_v0_0_19.zip (https)
MD5: 6DDE072811D4B44B15D0B8EE4E7B4C03
SHA256: EB38D57E63B12EFAC531B4F0BA866BF47CAEC7F64E0C3CCF4557476FFF1C6226

Tuesday 31 March 2020

Update: msoffcrypto-crack.py Version 0.0.5

Filed under: Encryption,My Software,Update — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

This new version of msoffcrypto-crack.py, a tool to crack encrypted MS Office documents, comes with a new option to generated a password dictionary based on the filename of the document.

Option -p allows the user to provide a dictionary file. Use value #f to generate a dictionary based on the filename: This will generate a dictionary of all possible substrings of the filename.

I had to analyze an encrypted spreadsheet yesterday, and the password was in the name, like this:

msoffcrypto-crack_V0_0_5.zip (https)
MD5: 1514DA367DCFF7051AB117266CE65BD3
SHA256: FEEFDD89134083EA19936494C8FCBD05804B3B9C0D4C5FBAFE06578D466B50AE

Wednesday 15 January 2020

Using CveEventWrite From VBA (CVE-2020-0601)

Filed under: Encryption — Didier Stevens @ 19:46

Microsoft’s patch for CVE-2020-0601 introduces a call to CveEventWrite in CryptoAPI when a faked certificate is detected.

This will write a Windows event entry in the Application event log.

For all of you out there in restricted corporate environments who need to test the processing of this event log entry, I wrote some VBA code to generate this event. The generated event will mimic a CVE-2020-0601 warning to some extent (didn’t bother getting para and otherPara right).

Copy the VBA code below in an Office application that supports VBA, like Word, and run the code. Then check your Application event log.


Option Explicit

'VBA7
Declare PtrSafe Sub CveEventWrite Lib "advapi32" (ByVal CveId As String, ByVal AdditionalDetails As String)

Sub TestCveEventWrite()
    Dim strCveId As String
    Dim strAdditionalDetails As String

    strCveId = "[CVE-2020-0601] cert validation"
    strAdditionalDetails = "CA: <@DidierStevens> sha1: 7A036FBBDBF7F29A3821A8087CE177E60927A6F3 para: something otherPara: something"
    CveEventWrite StrConv(strCveId, vbUnicode), StrConv(strAdditionalDetails, vbUnicode)
End Sub

 

Monday 20 May 2019

WebDAV, NTLM & Responder

Filed under: Encryption,Networking — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

I was trying to create a capture file with NTLM authenticated WebDAV traffic, using Responder: I couldn’t get it to work. There was WebDAV traffic, but no NTLMSSP headers.

Long story short: there’s a bug in Responder version 2.3.3.9. It manifests itself when the WebDAV client sends a request with just headers, and “Content-Length: 0”, like this:

The code in Responder “sees” just “Content-Length” and waits for more packets:

I made a quick & dirty fix: break out of the loop when we see “Content-Length: 0” (servers/HTTP.py):

And now I have NTLMSSP headers:

I just start my modified version of Responder:

Generate WebDAV traffic from a Windows 7 client:

And Responder participates in the challenge:

This can of course be cracked (if the password is not too complex), with John The Ripper for example:

I also have a blog post with more details about WebDAV traffic from Windows clients.

Once I got Responder to work, I searched on Laurent’s Responder repository, and found a pull-request to fix issues with “Content-Length: 0” requests (this PR has not been merged yet). Hence I’m not going to do my own PR.

You can find the capture file here:

webdav-ntlm-responder.zip (https)
MD5: A427DDBDAF090E93BB75B7A8DE696826
SHA256: 2F92CDD7382DD3622AC1F8769CF9D065C60C235DEF764E6709C32E2C4A7554A8

Sunday 19 May 2019

Quickpost: Retrieving an SSL Certificate with nmap

Filed under: Encryption,Networking,Quickpost — Didier Stevens @ 8:28

One of my first quickposts, more than 10 years ago, was an howto: using openssl to retrieve the certificate of a web site.

Since then, nmap has a scripting engine, and there is a script to check a certificate with nmap: ssl-cert.nse.

You just have to scan the site and port for which you want to check the certificate, like this: nmap -p 443 –script ssl-cert didierstevens.com

If you want the certificate too, increase verbosity with option -v:

Checking a certificate will not work if you scan a port that is not known to provide SSL/TLS:

In that case, you have to use service discovery (-sV):

 


Quickpost info


Saturday 26 January 2019

Update: msoffcrypto-crack.py Version 0.0.3

Filed under: Encryption,My Software,Update — Didier Stevens @ 13:44

This is a bug fix update: for agile encryption, Python module msoffcrypto does not throw an exception in method load_key when an invalid password is provided. It throws an exception when an attempt is made to decrypt the file.

I added a call to method decrypt to handle this case.

msoffcrypto-crack_V0_0_3.zip (https)
MD5: 45BAB81D744DA62182EC58A8F2E05BFE
SHA256: CF9DE02C72C07C07786BE09551CD17F6DBB83BCEF2A1C5435E06A695D7C6770E

Monday 7 January 2019

Update: msoffcrypto-crack.py Version 0.0.2

Filed under: Encryption,My Software,Update — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

In this update of msoffcrypto-crack.py, two new options were added:

-e takes a text file and extracts all words from this text file to be used in the dictionary attack. Words are strings delimited by space characters. Words between single or double quotes, and words after string “password” are put at the beginning of the list for the dictionary attack.

The idea for option -e, is that you give it the content of an email message that contains the password of the encrypted attachment(s).

-c takes the password to decrypt the document. You use this option after the password was recovered (with option -p or -e for example), and need to run the tool again to decrypt the document. You can run the password cracking each time when you need to decrypt the document, but if this takes too long, then you just run it once and from then on provide the recovered password with option -c.

Password VelvetSweatshop was added to the embedded password list.

msoffcrypto-crack_V0_0_2.zip (https)
MD5: 010B7FA68FCF9CE84427815EFDFE1C42
SHA256: 6B368E40EEE8A907D444A49963B37F456A3645991201CE06F0E46A0F2E188A74

Monday 31 December 2018

New Tool: msoffcrypto-crack.py

Filed under: Encryption,maldoc,My Software — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

This is a new tool to recover the password of encrypted MS Office documents. I quickly put together this script to help with the analysis of encrypted, malicious documents.

This tool relies completely on Python module msoffcrypto to decrypt MS Office documents.

Since this is a Python tool based on a Python library, don’t except fast password recovery. This is more a convenience program.

It can recover passwords using a build-in password list, or you can provide your own list via option -p.

The tool can also decrypt the encrypted MS Office document if the password is recovered: used option -o to achieve this. Otherwise, the tool just displays the recovered password.

Like many of my tools, it can take its input from stdin and provide the decrypted document via stdout.

It’s developed with Python 2, and also tested on Python 3.

Read the man page for all the details: option -m.

msoffcrypto-crack_V0_0_1.zip (https)
MD5: F67060E0DE62727A1A69D0FD6F39013A
SHA256: 1466B94B56595BA0B91F0A2606F699E1D737E964F3F1A4DFDF7EAA47843DD063

Wednesday 10 October 2018

KEIHash: Fingerprinting SSH

Filed under: Encryption,My Software,Networking — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

keihash.py is a program to parse pcap files and calculate the KEIHash of SSH connections.

The KEIHash is the MD5 hash of the Key Exchange Init (KEI) data (strings). For obvious reasons, I could not call this an SSH fingerprint. This is inspired by JA3 SSL fingerprinting.

It can be used to profile SSH clients and servers. For example, the hash for the latest version of PuTTY (SSH-2.0-PuTTY_Release_0.70) is 1c5eaa56f3e4569385ae5f82a54715ee.

This is the MD5 hash of:

240-curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,rsa2048-sha256,rsa1024-sha1,diffie-hellman-group1-sha1;87-ssh-rsa,ssh-ed25519,ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,ssh-dss;189-aes256-ctr,aes256-cbc,rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se,aes192-ctr,aes192-cbc,aes128-ctr,aes128-cbc,chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,blowfish-ctr,blowfish-cbc,3des-ctr,3des-cbc,arcfour256,arcfour128;189-aes256-ctr,aes256-cbc,rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se,aes192-ctr,aes192-cbc,aes128-ctr,aes128-cbc,chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,blowfish-ctr,blowfish-cbc,3des-ctr,3des-cbc,arcfour256,arcfour128;155-hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha1,hmac-sha1-96,hmac-md5,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-96-etm@openssh.com,hmac-md5-etm@openssh.com;155-hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha1,hmac-sha1-96,hmac-md5,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-96-etm@openssh.com,hmac-md5-etm@openssh.com;9-none,zlib;9-none,zlib;0-;0-

These are all the strings found in the Key Exchange Init packet, prefixed by their length and concatenated with separator ;.

With this, I’ve been able to identify SSH clients with spoofed banners attempting to connect to my servers.

keihash_V0_0_1.zip (https)
MD5: 674D019A739679D9659D2D512A60BDD8
SHA256: DB7471F1253E3AEA6BFD0BA38C154AF3E1D1967F13980AC3F42BB61BBB750490

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