Didier Stevens

Monday 20 May 2019

WebDAV, NTLM & Responder

Filed under: Encryption,Networking — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

I was trying to create a capture file with NTLM authenticated WebDAV traffic, using Responder: I couldn’t get it to work. There was WebDAV traffic, but no NTLMSSP headers.

Long story short: there’s a bug in Responder version 2.3.3.9. It manifests itself when the WebDAV client sends a request with just headers, and “Content-Length: 0”, like this:

The code in Responder “sees” just “Content-Length” and waits for more packets:

I made a quick & dirty fix: break out of the loop when we see “Content-Length: 0” (servers/HTTP.py):

And now I have NTLMSSP headers:

I just start my modified version of Responder:

Generate WebDAV traffic from a Windows 7 client:

And Responder participates in the challenge:

This can of course be cracked (if the password is not too complex), with John The Ripper for example:

I also have a blog post with more details about WebDAV traffic from Windows clients.

Once I got Responder to work, I searched on Laurent’s Responder repository, and found a pull-request to fix issues with “Content-Length: 0” requests (this PR has not been merged yet). Hence I’m not going to do my own PR.

You can find the capture file here:

webdav-ntlm-responder.zip (https)
MD5: A427DDBDAF090E93BB75B7A8DE696826
SHA256: 2F92CDD7382DD3622AC1F8769CF9D065C60C235DEF764E6709C32E2C4A7554A8

Sunday 19 May 2019

Quickpost: Retrieving an SSL Certificate with nmap

Filed under: Encryption,Networking,Quickpost — Didier Stevens @ 8:28

One of my first quickposts, more than 10 years ago, was an howto: using openssl to retrieve the certificate of a web site.

Since then, nmap has a scripting engine, and there is a script to check a certificate with nmap: ssl-cert.nse.

You just have to scan the site and port for which you want to check the certificate, like this: nmap -p 443 –script ssl-cert didierstevens.com

If you want the certificate too, increase verbosity with option -v:

Checking a certificate will not work if you scan a port that is not known to provide SSL/TLS:

In that case, you have to use service discovery (-sV):

 


Quickpost info


Saturday 26 January 2019

Update: msoffcrypto-crack.py Version 0.0.3

Filed under: Encryption,My Software,Update — Didier Stevens @ 13:44

This is a bug fix update: for agile encryption, Python module msoffcrypto does not throw an exception in method load_key when an invalid password is provided. It throws an exception when an attempt is made to decrypt the file.

I added a call to method decrypt to handle this case.

msoffcrypto-crack_V0_0_3.zip (https)
MD5: 45BAB81D744DA62182EC58A8F2E05BFE
SHA256: CF9DE02C72C07C07786BE09551CD17F6DBB83BCEF2A1C5435E06A695D7C6770E

Monday 7 January 2019

Update: msoffcrypto-crack.py Version 0.0.2

Filed under: Encryption,My Software,Update — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

In this update of msoffcrypto-crack.py, two new options were added:

-e takes a text file and extracts all words from this text file to be used in the dictionary attack. Words are strings delimited by space characters. Words between single or double quotes, and words after string “password” are put at the beginning of the list for the dictionary attack.

The idea for option -e, is that you give it the content of an email message that contains the password of the encrypted attachment(s).

-c takes the password to decrypt the document. You use this option after the password was recovered (with option -p or -e for example), and need to run the tool again to decrypt the document. You can run the password cracking each time when you need to decrypt the document, but if this takes too long, then you just run it once and from then on provide the recovered password with option -c.

Password VelvetSweatshop was added to the embedded password list.

msoffcrypto-crack_V0_0_2.zip (https)
MD5: 010B7FA68FCF9CE84427815EFDFE1C42
SHA256: 6B368E40EEE8A907D444A49963B37F456A3645991201CE06F0E46A0F2E188A74

Monday 31 December 2018

New Tool: msoffcrypto-crack.py

Filed under: Encryption,maldoc,My Software — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

This is a new tool to recover the password of encrypted MS Office documents. I quickly put together this script to help with the analysis of encrypted, malicious documents.

This tool relies completely on Python module msoffcrypto to decrypt MS Office documents.

Since this is a Python tool based on a Python library, don’t except fast password recovery. This is more a convenience program.

It can recover passwords using a build-in password list, or you can provide your own list via option -p.

The tool can also decrypt the encrypted MS Office document if the password is recovered: used option -o to achieve this. Otherwise, the tool just displays the recovered password.

Like many of my tools, it can take its input from stdin and provide the decrypted document via stdout.

It’s developed with Python 2, and also tested on Python 3.

Read the man page for all the details: option -m.

msoffcrypto-crack_V0_0_1.zip (https)
MD5: F67060E0DE62727A1A69D0FD6F39013A
SHA256: 1466B94B56595BA0B91F0A2606F699E1D737E964F3F1A4DFDF7EAA47843DD063

Wednesday 10 October 2018

KEIHash: Fingerprinting SSH

Filed under: Encryption,My Software,Networking — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

keihash.py is a program to parse pcap files and calculate the KEIHash of SSH connections.

The KEIHash is the MD5 hash of the Key Exchange Init (KEI) data (strings). For obvious reasons, I could not call this an SSH fingerprint. This is inspired by JA3 SSL fingerprinting.

It can be used to profile SSH clients and servers. For example, the hash for the latest version of PuTTY (SSH-2.0-PuTTY_Release_0.70) is 1c5eaa56f3e4569385ae5f82a54715ee.

This is the MD5 hash of:

240-curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,rsa2048-sha256,rsa1024-sha1,diffie-hellman-group1-sha1;87-ssh-rsa,ssh-ed25519,ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,ssh-dss;189-aes256-ctr,aes256-cbc,rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se,aes192-ctr,aes192-cbc,aes128-ctr,aes128-cbc,chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,blowfish-ctr,blowfish-cbc,3des-ctr,3des-cbc,arcfour256,arcfour128;189-aes256-ctr,aes256-cbc,rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se,aes192-ctr,aes192-cbc,aes128-ctr,aes128-cbc,chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,blowfish-ctr,blowfish-cbc,3des-ctr,3des-cbc,arcfour256,arcfour128;155-hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha1,hmac-sha1-96,hmac-md5,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-96-etm@openssh.com,hmac-md5-etm@openssh.com;155-hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha1,hmac-sha1-96,hmac-md5,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-96-etm@openssh.com,hmac-md5-etm@openssh.com;9-none,zlib;9-none,zlib;0-;0-

These are all the strings found in the Key Exchange Init packet, prefixed by their length and concatenated with separator ;.

With this, I’ve been able to identify SSH clients with spoofed banners attempting to connect to my servers.

keihash_V0_0_1.zip (https)
MD5: 674D019A739679D9659D2D512A60BDD8
SHA256: DB7471F1253E3AEA6BFD0BA38C154AF3E1D1967F13980AC3F42BB61BBB750490

Thursday 7 June 2018

Encrypted OOXML Documents

Filed under: Encryption,maldoc — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

The Office Open XML format introduced with MS Office 2007, is essentially composed of XML files stored inside a ZIP container.

When an OOXML file (like a .docx file) is protected with a password for reading, it is encrypted. The encrypted OOXML file is stored inside a Compound File Binary Format file, or what I like to call an OLE file. This is the “old” MS Office file format (like .doc), the default file format used before MS Office 2007.

This is how an encrypted .docx file looks like, when analyzed with oledump:

Stream EncryptedPackage contains the encrypted document, and stream EncryptionInfo contains information necessary to help with the decryption of stream EncryptedPackage.

The structure of stream EncryptedPackage is simple:

First there’s an integer with the size of the encrypted document, followed by the encrypted document. If we decode the binary data for the integer with format-bytes.py, we get the size 11841:

The EncryptionInfo stream starts with binary data, the version format, and is then followed by more binary data, or XML data, depending on the version:

The first bytes specify the major and minor version used for the EncryptionInfo stream. This example is mostly XML:

Which can be further parsed with xmldump.py:

To help identifying what version is used, I developed an oledump plugin named plugin_office_crypto:

Depending on the version, different tools can be used to decrypt office documents.

Python program msoffcrypto-tool can only decrypt agile encryption (for the moment, it’s a work in progress).

C program msoffice-crypt can decrypt standard, extended and agile encryption.

 

Sometimes, malicious documents will be encrypted to try to avoid detection. The victim will have to enter the password to open the document. There is one exception though: Excel documents encrypted with password VelvetSweatshop.

 

Friday 29 December 2017

Cracking Encrypted PDFs – Conclusion

Filed under: Encryption,Forensics,Hacking,PDF — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

TL;DR: PDFs protected with 40-bit keys can not guarantee confidentiality, even with strong passwords. When you protect your PDFs with a password, you have to encrypt your PDFs with strong passwords and use long enough keys. The PDF specification has evolved over time, and with it, the encryption options you have. There are many encryption options today, you are no longer restricted to 40-bit keys. You can use 128-bit or 256-bit keys too.

There is a trade-off too: the more advanced encryption option you use, the more recent the PDF reader must be to support the encryption option you selected. Older PDF readers are not able to handle 256-bit AES for example.

Since each application capable of creating PDFs will have different options and descriptions for encryption, I can not tell you what options to use for your particular application. There are just too many different applications and versions. But if you are not sure if you selected an encryption option that will use long enough keys, you can always check the /Encrypt dictionary of the PDF you created, for example with my pdf-parser (in this example /Length 128 tells us a 128-bit key is used):

Or you can use QPDF to encrypt an existing PDF (I’ll publish a blog post later with encryption examples for QPDF).

But don’t use 40-bit keys, unless confidentiality is not important to you:

I first showed (almost 4 years ago) how PDFs with 40-bit keys can be decrypted in minutes, using a commercial tool with rainbow tables. This video illustrates this.

Later I showed how this can be done with free, open source tools: Hashcat and John the Ripper. But although I could recover the encryption key using Hashcat, I still had to use a commercial tool to do the actual decryption with the key recovered by Hashcat.

Today, this is no longer the case: in this series of blog posts, I show how to recover the password, how to recover the key and how to decrypt with the key, all with free, open source tools.

Overview of the complete blog post series:

 

Thursday 28 December 2017

Cracking Encrypted PDFs – Part 3

Filed under: Encryption,Forensics,Hacking,PDF — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

I performed a brute-force attack on the password of an encrypted PDF and a brute-force attack on the key of (another) encrypted PDF, both PDFs are part of a challenge published by John August.

The encryption key is derived from the password. it’s not just based on the password only, but also on metadata. This implies that different PDFs encrypted with the same user password, will have different encryption keys.

When you recover the user password of an encrypted PDF, you can just use it with PDF readers like Adobe Reader: they will ask you for the password, you provide it and the PDF will be decrypted and rendered.

But when you recover the key of an encrypted PDF, you can not use it with PDF reader: there is no feature that will allow you to input a key in stead of a password. The only method I knew to decrypt a PDF document with its encryption key, was to use Elcomsoft’s PDF cracking tool:

Now I worked out a second method: I modified the source code of QPDF so that it will accept encryption keys too. It’s a quick and dirty hack, I did not add a new option to QPDF but I “hijacked” the –password option. If the value to the option –password starts with string “key:”, then QPDF will not derive the key from the provided password, but it will use the key provided as hexadecimal characters. Here is how I use it to decrypt the “tough” PDF:

I also made a small modification to the –show-encryption option, to display the encryption key:

Update: I had an email exchange with Jay Berkenbilt, the author of QPDF, and he will look into this patch and possibly add a new key option to QPDF.

If you are interested in my modified version of QPDF, you can find the modified source code files and Windows binaries here:

qpdf-patched.zip (https)
MD5: 57E1A5A232E12B45D0A927181A1E8C3B
SHA256: 6F17E095B38AE72F229A6662216DDCE86057D2BA1C567B07FEF78B8A93413495

Update: this is the complete blog post series:

Wednesday 27 December 2017

Cracking Encrypted PDFs – Part 2

Filed under: Encryption,Forensics,Hacking,PDF — Didier Stevens @ 0:00

After cracking the “easy” PDF of John’s challenge, I’m cracking the “tough” PDF (harder_encryption).

Using the same steps as for the “easy” PDF, I confirm the PDF is encrypted with a user password using 40-bit encryption, and I extract the hash.

Since the password is a long random password, a brute-force attack on the password like I did in the first part will take too long. That’s why I’m going to perform a brute-force attack on the key: using 40-bit encryption means that the key is just 5 bytes long, and that will take about 2 hours on my machine. The key is derived from the password.

I’m using hashcat again, but this time with hash mode 10410 in stead of 10400.
This is the command I’m using:

hashcat-4.0.0\hashcat64.exe --potfile-path=harder_encryption.pot -m 10410 -a 3 -w 3 "harder_encryption - CONFIDENTIAL.hash" ?b?b?b?b?b

I’m using the following options:

  • –potfile-path=harder_encryption.pot : I prefer using a dedicated pot file, but this is optional
  • -m 10410 : this hash mode is suitable to crack the key used for 40-bit PDF encryption
  • -a 3 : I perform a brute force attack (since it’s a key, not a password)
  • -w 3 : I’m using a workload profile that is supposed to speed up cracking on my machine
  • ?b?b?b?b?b : I’m providing a mask for 5 bytes (I want to brute-force keys that are 40 bits long, i.e. 5 bytes)

And here is the result:

The recovered key is 27ce78c81a. I was lucky, it took about 15 minutes to recover this key (again, using GPU GeForce GTX 980M, 2048/8192 MB allocatable, 12MCU). Checking the complete keyspace whould take a bit more than 2 hours.

Now, how can we decrypt a PDF with the key (in stead of the password)? I’ll explain that in the next blog post.

Want a hint? Take a look at my Tweet!

Update: this is the complete blog post series:

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