USBVirusScan v1.4.0 has a new “feature”: from this version on, only one instance can be running. This was requested by Alfredo.
I use a mutex to detect if an instance of USBVirusScan is already running, and if it is, I do not launch another instance.
Mutexes are used by programmers to orchestrate exclusive access to a resource. Suppose your program is multi-threaded and that separate threads are reading, checking and updating the same global variable. Thread A could read global variable G, followed by thread B writing global variable G. Thread A will then make decisions on an outdated value of global variable G (it has just been changed by thread B). To avoid this, we must be sure that reading, checking and updating is an atomic operation, i.e., that when thread B is using global variable G, threat A cannot start using it before thread B is done.
This can be done with a mutex. When thread B wants to use global variable G, it first has to create a mutex. Creating a mutex is requested to the OS. The OS guarantees that creating the mutex is also an atomic operation: 2 programs cannot create the same mutex simultaneously. If the mutex doesn’t exist, it is created and the program is informed of the creation. On the other hand, if the mutex already exists, the program is informed that the mutex already exists. So if thread B successfully creates the mutex, it knows that no other thread is using the global variable and that it can use it. If thread A tries to create a mutex, it will fail because it already exists, and therefor it knows it cannot use global variable G. When thread B has done reading, checking and writing global variable G, it releases the mutex, thereby giving other threads the opportunity to create the mutex and access global variable G.
A mutex can also be used to restrict the number of running instances of a program. When the program is started, it first creates a mutex. If it succeeds, it continues and never releases the mutex (the mutex will be released by the operating system when the program terminates). However, if the creation fails, the program knows that another instance is already running and it just stops. This makes that only one instance of the program can be running.
Mutexes can be named, for example “USBVirusScan”, this allows for the creation of many different mutexes.
Mutexes are also used by virus writers to limit the number of running instances of their virus. If a virus is allowed to reproduce uncontrolled on a machine, the huge number of running instances would soon kill the machine, thereby DoSing it.
Do you remember “inoculation” programs? They would prevent the execution of a particular virus strain on your machine. They work with mutexes: the inoculation program creates the same mutex as the virus would, and then stays resident, never releasing the mutex. If the virus wants to run on your inoculated machine, if fails to create the mutex and stops the infection, assuming your machine is already infected.
This tactic is also used in some viruses to disable competing viruses: not only do they create their own mutex, but also the mutex of the competing virus …