Didier Stevens

Tuesday 30 September 2008

Secret Question, Public Answer

Filed under: Vulnerabilities — Didier Stevens @ 9:58

Due to the current media attention, I’m updating and posting this old draft about secret questions.

First, let’s get a pedantic observation out of the way: Secret Question is a misnomer. If you think about it, it’s the answer that is secret, not the question.

The problem with secret questions is that they are often a backdoor to your account. When you use a strong password, the answer to your secret question will be easier to guess than your password. So you are actually using weak credentials.
If the sole purpose of the secret question is to reset your password (or e-mail it to you), then don’t use it, just type some random characters for an answer and forget about it. You won’t be able to get into your account using the secret question backdoor, but so won’t attackers.
If you’re afraid that you might forget your password, write it down and keep it safe (I recommend KeePass if you need a password manager).

Now if you definitely want a backdoor because you don’t want to write anything down and don’t trust your memory, there are a couple of options open to you.
If you’re not able to make up your own secret question, but have to choose one from a predefined list, then provide an answer that you can derive from the question only (think about it, your secret answer doesn’t have to make sense, it just has to be secret). An example:
Q: Name of first pet?
A: Four
Why four? Because the question is a sentence of 4 words. This way you don’t have to remember your secret answer, just the rule to derive the answer from the question. You can reuse the same rule for different accounts, it will generate different secret answers for different secret questions.

If you can provide your own secret question, then I recommend to use math. An example:
Q: How much is 3 + 7?
A: 20
Why 20? Because your secret rule is to double the result to obtain the correct answer. 3 + 7 equals 10, 10 times 2 equels 20.

Secret answer rules can be as hard as you want, but complex rules are more likely to be forgotten…

To summarize: disable secret questions, and store and protect your credentials.

This post comes with a complementary cartoon.

Monday 29 September 2008

Quickpost: SQL Server 2005 Management Studio and Password Management

Filed under: Encryption,Quickpost,Reverse Engineering — Didier Stevens @ 16:06

Another stored password question I was asked: where does SQL Server 2005 Management Studio store the passwords, and are they encrypted?

When you set the Remember Password toggle:

the password is saved in this file (default install, Administrator account):
C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Application Data\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Tools\Shell\mru.dat

The password is not stored in cleartext. The file contains a BASE64 blob, strongly resembling a DPAPI protected data blob.

Convert it to hex:

(all the protected DPAPI data blobs I’ve seen start with byte sequence 01 00 00 00 D0 8C 9D…)

Let’s decode this with CryptUnprotectData (all optional parameters set to NULL):

We get no error, proving that it’s indeed data protected by DPAPI on this machine for this user. The content is just the password in UNICODE.

The nice thing for a software developer, is that DPAPI allows him to encrypt/decrypt data without having to worry about encryption keys. For details on all the keys used by DPAPI, read this MSDN article.


Quickpost info


Friday 26 September 2008

Quickpost: Stored User Names and Passwords

Filed under: Encryption,Quickpost — Didier Stevens @ 19:05

“Where does Windows store this password?” “Is it safe there?”

I regularly get asked these questions, and they frequently appear on forums.

Microsoft has developed several technologies to store and protect credentials, and to add to the confusion, Microsoft has renamed some of these technologies over the years…

A list: LSA, Protected Storage, Windows Data Protection (DPAPI), Stored User Names and Passwords, …

Last question I read was: where does runas /savecred store the password? It gets stored in Stored User Names and Passwords. Before storing the password:

And after:

Nirsoft has a tool (CredView) to dump passwords stored in Stored User Names and Passwords:

The CredRead function (used by CredView) will not retrieve Windows passwords (domain and local) unless it is called from the LSA process. That’s why CredView doesn’t display the testrunas password (data).

If you convert CredView to a DLL and inject it in the LSA process, you’ll be able to retrieve the passwords. This is exactly what Cain & Abel does, and why you need admin rights (SeDebugPrivilege to be precise).


Quickpost info


Tuesday 23 September 2008

Dismantling an XML-Bomb

Filed under: Vulnerabilities — Didier Stevens @ 21:49

No breaking news in this post, but I’ve found enough applications vulnerable to XML-bombs and not enough awareness around it, that I feel it justifies another web page documenting the principles behind it, together with suggestions to protect your applications from it.

The XML-bomb is a small XML document designed to expand to a gigantic size when parsed by an (unprotected) XML-parser. The huge amount of resources (memory) consumed when parsing the XML-bomb can cause a DoS or BoF.

Take this simple XML document:

And take this Document Type Declaration defining an entity e0 with value A:

Including this DOCTYPE in our simple XML document enables us to reference entity e0 in our document, for example like this:

When this document is parsed by an XML-parser supporting DTDs, the entity reference is replaced by its value. Here is Internet Explorer rendering our XML document:

Notice that &e0; has been replaced by A.

This entity definition and referral mechanism is one essential ingredient of an XML-bomb.

The second ingredient is an expression that will grow exponentially and consume huge amounts of resources when evaluated.

We define a second entity, e1, referring twice to our first entity e0:

Include this definition in our XML document:

And this is how it is parsed:

e0 evaluates to A

e1 evaluates to AA

Now define e2 referencing e1, e3 referencing e2, …, and then we get

e2 evaluates to AAAA

e3 evaluates to AAAAAAAA

We have achieved exponential growth! An XML-bomb with 31 entities is less than 1K in size, but entity e30 is 1GB  (2^30 bytes) in size when it gets evaluated by the XML-parser!

How do you protect your application from an exploding XML-bomb?

If you don’t need support for DTDs, just disable DTDs or use a parser without DTD support.

If you need support for DTDs, try to prevent XML-bombs from entering your XML-parser by known-pattern scanning (like classic antivirus software does, for example an application firewall) or limit the impact of an expanding XML-bomb by hardening your XML-parser by restricting its consumption of resources.

You’re aware of the limitations of known-pattern scanning. This is a text-book XML-bomb, with exponential growth finding its origin in the binary tree structure. But there are many other data type structures …

CALL -151

Filed under: Entertainment,Nonsense,Puzzle — Didier Stevens @ 10:22

A quiz question for today: what is CALL -151?

Shout-outs to everyone who ever used CALL -151!

Update:

The answer:

Monday 22 September 2008

Quickpost: WiFi Antenna With 360° Servo

Filed under: Hardware,Quickpost,WiFi — Didier Stevens @ 10:17

Last weekend, I’ve been playing with a RC servo to automate the recording of wsrradial plots. Metlstorm has presented a solution to do this with Lego Mindstorms, but I present a solution if you don’t want to use Lego components.

RC servos are easy to find, and you can find many servo controllers for PCs (a typical RC servo is controlled with a PWM signal). Though most RC servos though are limited to 180° rotations, there are 360° servos on the market.

Here is a picture of my 360° RC servo, togheter with a servo controller.

The servo in action:


Quickpost info


Wednesday 17 September 2008

Authenticode Challenge – Solution Part 1

Filed under: Encryption,Puzzle — Didier Stevens @ 23:07

I’m starting a couple of posts with detailed explanations and solutions for my Authenticode Challenge. Let’s start with a solution using standard tools.

If you’re a bit into cryptography, you know that the textbook attack on RSA public-key cryptography is integer factorization. Long keys are used to thwart this attack, because no efficient method has been found to factor large integers within an acceptable time and cost. While researching Authenticode, I asked myself this question: assume you’ve solved the factorization problem, how exactly would you forge a new digital signature for a patched executable?

I worked out a method, and then got the idea to turn this into a difficult puzzle for you, i.e. a real challenge. But to do that, I had to find a way to make the integer factorization a non-issue for the puzzle. My first solution, using a very small key, was a dead-end. First the key had to be large enough to allow me to generate a certificate (about 360 bits long), but then the signcode procedure didn’t work. I figured out that the key had to be at least 512 bits for Authenticode to work. But a 512 bits key would take too long to factorize… Read on to find out how I solved this.

Solution 1

This solution takes mostly place on a Linux box. The first thing we have to do is recover the private key…

1) Get the authenticode challenge file ac.exe

2) Extract the PKCS7 Authenticode signature with my digital signature tool:

disitool.py extract ac.exe ac.exe.pkcs7

3) Dump the information in the pkcs7 file with openssl:

openssl pkcs7 -in ac.exe.pkcs7 -inform DER -text -print_certs > ac.exe.pkcs7.text


The public key is composed of the Modulus and the Exponent.

4) Lets extract the modulus from the certificate with this command:

openssl x509 -modulus -in ac.exe.pkcs7.text

Modulus=D0EA1ABA978DF0065B2009F75C846F28B04ED5143B237B3FC24272245ADE837EFE0271E1A2854E0C81BA9F70A83AD86D47B0EACD062BC15BC61A99DC83124EC9

The modulus N is an integer that is the product of 2 prime numbers, P and Q (P and Q are kept secret). Integer factorization will allow you to recover P and Q, and hence produce the private key. There are several algorithms and tools to factorize integers, I’ll just point you to a didactic cryptography tool I mentioned before: Cryptool. But because I’m using a 512 bit modulus, factorization will take a long time, and I wanted to avoid this. So lets do something else.

5) Convert the modulus from a hexadecimal representation to a decimal representation, for example with Python:

python -c 'print 0xD0EA1ABA978DF0065B2009F75C846F28B04ED5143B237B3FC24272245ADE837EFE0271E1A2854E0C81BA9F70A83AD86D47B0EACD062BC15BC61A99DC83124EC9'

The modulus N in decimal representation is:
10941738641570527421809707322040357612003732945449205990913842131476349984288934784717997257891267332497625752899781833797076537244027146743531593354333897

6) Search for this number with Live Search (Google will not accept such a large search term):

To spare you the long factorization time, I used a 512 bit key that has already been factorized: RSA-155 (this is the first 512 bit key to be factorized and was a landmark result in integer factorization).

Thus we have:

P = 102639592829741105772054196573991675900716567808038066803341933521790711307779

Q = 106603488380168454820927220360012878679207958575989291522270608237193062808643

Next post will explain in detail how to use P and Q to generate a new Authenticode signature…

Friday 12 September 2008

Second YAISC cartoon

Filed under: Entertainment — Didier Stevens @ 14:13

It’s silly to post this now, but I forgot to mention in my YAISC post that I wouldn’t post my cartoons in this feed.

Monday 8 September 2008

YAISC

Filed under: Entertainment — Didier Stevens @ 17:39

Today I’m starting a new experiment. I wonder if I’ll be funny enough to entertain you.

Sunday 7 September 2008

Mister P and Q’s Excellent Solution

Filed under: Encryption,Hacking,Puzzle — Didier Stevens @ 15:49

Mr. P and Q has solved my Authenticode Challenge. You can download his solution here, I copied his howto here below. I’ll add my own details in an upcoming post, but in the meantime, be sure to do a web search for the modulus.


What you need:
An internet connection
A windows system
A CPP compiler
OpenSSL installed

Step 1:
Export the certificate used by Didier from ac.exe to didier.cer
Select AC.EXE, Right click properties, Digital Signatures tab, "Details button", "View Certificate" button,Details tab, "Copy to File" button, select
the "DER encoded binary X.509(.CER)" option and export to didier.exe

Step 2:
Use OpenSSL to extract the modulus of the certificate used
OpenSSL>x509 -modulus -inform DER -in didier.cer

Step 3:
Use OpenSSL to convert didier's certificate in PEM format (for later use)
OpenSSL>x509 -inform DER -in didier.cer -outform PEM -out didier.pem

Step 4:
Copy the modulus extracted in step2 into FindPQ.cpp, build the application, execute and (wait ... wait ... wait ...) ^1000
or download http://www.boo.net/~jasonp/msieve.exe.
Start msieve
msieve -v -n 0xD0EA1ABA978DF0065B2009F75C846F28B04ED5143B237B3FC24272245ADE837EFE0271E1A2854E0C81BA9F70A83AD86D47B0EACD062BC15BC61A99DC83124EC9
and (wait ... wait ... wait ...)^100 until it finally displays:
prp78 factor: 102639592829741105772054196573991675900716567808038066803341933521790711307779
prp78 factor: 106603488380168454820927220360012878679207958575989291522270608237193062808643

Step 5:
Create a 'real' RSA key so we can re-sign the modified ac.exe (remember the first part of this challenge)
Copy the two factors found(step 4) into CreatePEM.cpp, build the application and excute.
The application will produce newkey.pem

Step 6:
Use OpenSSL to combine newkey.pem and didier.pem (step3) into a PKCS12 keyfile (you will need to provide a password of your choice)
OpenSSL>pkcs12 -export -in didier.pem -inkey newkey.pem -out magic.p12

Step 7:
Import magic.p12 into your Windows system
Simply double click magic.p12 select all the default options specify the password you defined in Step 6 when asked.

Step 8:
Download signcode

https://www.thawte.com/dynamic/en/images/support/inetSDk5.zip

unzip

Step 9
Start signcode, select the modified ac.exe, select the "Didier" key and you're done ...

Good luck
Mister P and Q.
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